CHAPTER NO. 1 - BIOLOGY AND ITS BRANCHES
1. Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.2. The term biology is derived from the Greek word bios "life" and the suffix -logia, "the study of"
3. Aerobiology is the study of airborne organic particles.
4. Agriculture is the study of producing crops and raising livestock, with an emphasis on practical applications.
5. Anatomy is the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organism, or specifically in humans.
6. Histology is the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy.
- Anatomy – the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
- Histology – the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
- Astrobiology (also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy) – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe
- Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
- Bioengineering – the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
- Biogeography – the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
- Bioinformatics – the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
- Biomathematics (or Mathematical biology) – the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
- Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics ororthotics
- Biomedical research – the study of health and disease
- Pharmacology – the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
- Biomusicology – the study of music from a biological point of view.
- Biophysics – the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
- Biotechnology – the study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
- Synthetic Biology – research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature
- Building biology – the study of the indoor living environment
- Botany – the study of plants
- Cell biology – the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
- Cognitive biology – the study of cognition as a biological function
- Conservation biology – the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
- Cryobiology – the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings
- Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
- Embryology – the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth)
- Ecology – the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
- Environmental biology – the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
- Epidemiology – a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
- Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time
- Genetics – the study of genes and heredity.
- Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
- Hematology (also known as Haematology) – the study of blood and blood-forming organs.
- Integrative biology – the study of whole organisms
- Limnology – the study of inland waters
- Marine biology (or Biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
- Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
- Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
- Mycology – the study of fungi
- Neurobiology – the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology
- Population biology – the study of groups of conspecific organisms, including
- Paleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
- Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
- Physiology – the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
- Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
- Psychobiology – the study of the biological bases of psychology
- Sociobiology – the study of the biological bases of sociology
- Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
- Zoology – the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior. Subbranches include: Ethology(animal behavior),Entomology(insects), Herpetology(reptiles and amphibians), Ichthyology(fish), Mammalogy(mammals), and Ornithology(birds)